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HYPERTHERMIA IN CANCER TREATMENT

Breaf History of Hyperthermia
The healing effect of heat treatment was already mentioned in the advanced cultures of the old Egypt (2400 B.C.), but only the medical professionals of the Greek Antique used this therapeutic approach consistently, acknowledged it and called it over-warming (in Greek: Hyperthermia). “Give me the power to produce fever and I heal every illness”, said Parmenides, Greek physician, 540-480 B.C.

Hyperthermia in cancer treatment
Hyperthermia (also called thermal therapy or thermotherapy) is an acute condition which occurs when the body produces or absorbs more heat than it can dissipate. It is usually caused by prolonged exposure to high temperatures. The heat-regulating mechanisms of the body eventually become overwhelmed and unable to effectively deal with the heat, causing the body temperature to climb uncontrollably.

Hyperthermia can also be created artificially by drugs or medical devices. In these instances it may be used to treat cancer and other conditions. Cancer cells are more heat-sensitive than healthy cells and their structure reacts differently to overheating. In 1910 the possibility of overheating in order to increase the radiation effect on malicious tumors was described for the first time. This already well-known and applied method was rediscovered as so called “whole body hyperthermia” in the beginning of the 1960s. Since the 70s a number of studies were run to further investigate this therapy form.

Research has shown that high temperatures (up to 44°C) can damage and kill cancer cells, usually with minimal injury to normal tissues. By killing cancer cells and damaging proteins and structures within cells, hyperthermia may shrink tumors.

Detect your Cervical Cancer With Pap Test

Cervical cancer is the cancer of the cervix. It is a disease caused by the abnormal growth and division of cells that forms in the lining of the cervix. It is the second common form of cancer that affects women today. It is very common in middle age women and older.

The statistics of cervical cancer in the United States, according to American Cancer Society (ACS), shows that about 11,150 women are diagnosing with this cancer and approximately 3,670 women die from this cancer every year.

To understand more about cervical cancer, it is important to note what a cervix is first. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that connects the uterus to the vagina (birth canal) in a woman’s body.

Usually, cervical cancer exhibits no symptoms to detect the presence of cancer in your body. It is known as a slow growing form of cancer. When cancer develops in your body, the healthy cells in the cervix begin to change into abnormal cells, which then turn into pre-cancerous cells. If left untreated, these pre-cancerous cells will turn into cancer.
Risk factors of cervical cancer:
Although the cause of cervical cancer is not known there are certain risk factors that increase the risk of developing this cancer. Risk factors are the things that will affect the chances of developing a disease greater.

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a sexual transmitted disease is highly associated with invasive cervical cancer.

Sexual transmitted diseases occur due to sexual contacts with an infected person. Chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes, HIV/AIDS are some of he examples of sexual transmitted diseases.

Other risk factors that increase your chances of developing cervical cancer are: a history of sexual transmitted diseases, having sexual intercourse with multiple partners, having sexual activities in very young age (without using contraceptives).

How To Calculate Your Risk For Breast Cancer

Using known risk factors for breast cancer, mathematical models can be developed to help answer important questions.  These mathematical models are useful tools for researchers and for patients as follows:

  • 1. Research on risk factors – The Claus risk assessment model was used to discover the subpopulation of people who had an autosomal dominant genetic allele that increased their risk from 10% to 92%. This led to the discovery of the BRCA genes associated with breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer.
  • 2. Clinical trial eligibility – The Gail risk assessment model was developed to help researchers determine who to enroll in the NSAPB Breast Cancer Prevention Trials

where chemoprevention was shown to reduce breast cancer risk.

  • 3. Guidelines for doing BRCA testing – BRCA testing is very expensive and practically worthless if done on everyone (because it is so rare to be homozygous for BRCA1 or BRCA2). Mathematical models such as the BRCAPRO, BOADICEA, and Tyrer-Cuzick models can help determine what patients should undergo BRCA testing. The decision for testing is usually made when one of these models predicts a 10% or greater chance that there is a mutation of the BRCA1, BRCA2, or both genes.
  • 4. Guidelines for doing MRI screening for breast cancer - MRI screening for breast cancer is not a cost effective screening test for the general population, but in specific groups, there are clear cut reasons to do so. In general, screening MRI is recommended for women with 20-25% or greater lifetime risk of breast cancer. The BRCAPRO and Tyrer-Cuzick models have been used to help make clinical decisions about ordering MRIs for breast cancer screening.
  • 5. Guidelines for breast cancer therapy - The Gail model is used clinically to help

An Overview of Cancer

Cancer is second only to cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death in the Western world.

Although Cancer is primarily a disease of the elderly with more than 60% of deaths from cancer occurring in those over the age of 65, cancer can strike even the youngest of children.

Cancer appears to occur when the growth of cells in the body is out of control and cells divide too rapidly. Carcinomas can develop in almost any organ or tissue, such as the lung, colon, breast, skin, bones, or nerve tissue.

Most common sites are:

Prostrate 24%
Breast 13%
Lung 13%
Colon and Rectum 9%
Bladder 3%
Uterus 2.5%

The cause of Cancer is believed to be a combination of genetic factors and outside carcinogens such as tobacco, viruses, infection, asbestos, vinyl chloride, inappropriate diet.

Cancer often has no specific symptoms, so it is important that you limit your risk factors and undergo appropriate cancer screening. The signs and symptoms will depend on where the cancer is, the size of the tumor, and how much it affects the nearby organs or structures.

If a cancer spreads (metastasizes), then symptoms may appear in different parts of the body. As a tumour grows, it begins to push on nearby organs, blood vessels, and nerves. If the cancer is in a critical area, such as certain parts of the brain, even the smallest tumor can cause early symptoms.

But sometimes cancers start in places where it does not cause any symptoms until the cancer has grown quite large. Pancreatic cancers, for example, do not usually grow large enough to be felt from the outside of the body.

By the time a pancreatic cancer causes these signs or symptoms, it has usually reached an advanced stage.

Risks of Colon Cancer in Women and Men

Cancer occurs when something goes wrong with this system, causing uncontrolled cell division and growth. Colon cancer is cancer of the large intestine (colon), the lower part of your digestive system. Most cases of colon cancer begin as small, noncancerous (benign) clumps of cells called adenomatous polyps. Rectal cancer is cancer of the last 6 inches of the colon. Together, they’re often referred to as colorectal cancers.

Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer killer overall and third most common cause of cancer-related death in the United States in both males and females. Who is at risk for colorectal cancer. Men tend to get colorectal cancer at an earlier age than women, but women live longer so they catch up with men and thus the total number of cases in men and women is equal. Women diagnosed with uterine or ovarian cancer before age 50 are at increased risk of colorectal cancer. Woman with a personal history of breast cancer have only a very slight increase in risk of colorectal cancer. The average age to develop colorectal cancer is 70 years, and 93% of cases occur in persons 50 years of age or older. You have a higher risk for colon cancer if you have:

Cancer elsewhere in the body.

Colorectal polypsCrohn’s disease

Family history of colon cancer

Personal history of breast cancer

Ulcerative colitis.

What are the symptoms of colorectal cancer. Symptoms of colorectal cancer vary depending on the location of the cancer within the colon or rectum, though there may be no symptoms at all. The most common presenting symptom of colorectal cancer is rectal bleeding. Cancers arising from the left side of the colon generally cause bleeding, or in their late stages may cause constipation, abdominal pain, and obstructive symptoms. On the other hand, right-sided colon lesions may produce vague abdominal aching, but are unlikely to present with obstruction or altered bowel habit. Other symptoms such as weakness, weight loss, or anemia resulting from chronic blood loss may accompany cancer of the right side of the colon.